The mouth, throat, gullet (food pipe), stomach, duodenum, and therefore the small and large intestines are the organs that make up this approach. According to nutrition science, the food we eat should have five elements, namely carbs, proteins, fats, mineral salts, and vitamins. The first three elements on this list are thought to provide the energy that is required for a person’s daily activities. One gramme of carbohydrate or protein provides 4.1 calories of energy, but one gramme of fat provides 9.2 calories. Carbohydrates are abundant in grains, potatoes, sugar, and other foods. Proteins, in addition to providing energy, have another crucial function: they help the body develop muscles. Plant proteins, which are abundant in pulses and dry nuts, and animal proteins, which may be obtained from animal sources such as eggs, meat, fish, chicken, milk, and so on, are the two categories. Because animal proteins are more valuable, vegetarians must include enough milk in their diet to meet their animal protein requirements. Fats may also be obtained from two different sources: plants and animals. Both of these are made to have the same energy values. Butter, on the other hand, contains animal fats from animals. Meat, eggs, fish, and poultry are more useful when consumed in large quantities since they are high in vitamins A and D.
Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Iodine, Sulphur, and other minerals originated in the anatomy. They play an important function in regulating metabolic activity throughout the body. Phosphorous and calcium are essential for the proper formation of bones and teeth. Many diseases are caused by mineral deficiencies, thus it’s important to have enough of them in one’s diet.
Vitamins are frequently found to be deficient in diets, despite the fact that they are only required in trace amounts. They’re found in fruits, vegetables, milk, and other foods, and they’re crucial for maintaining bodily health and vitality. Water is also required in considerable quantities in addition to these nutrients, as water makes up roughly 65 per cent of our body’s weight. Water is abundant in biological fluids such as saliva, blood, digestive juices, and endocrine secretions. Water assists in keeping the temperature within the normal range. The mouth is the most essential food organ. The meal is broken down into smaller bits with the teeth, crushed into finer forms, and moistened with saliva to make it easier to swallow. The pharynx is a portion of the mouth that connects seven pathways: two from the nose, one from the mouth, two from the ears, one to the lungs, and one to the stomach. Food is masticated and moistened in the mouth, then passed via the pharynx and down the gullet or oesophagus, which finally goes to the stomach. For around two hours, the meal stays in the stomach, mixing with the acid and digestive secretions generated by the stomach wall. It subsequently travels to the duodenum, which has an inverted horseshoe shape. The digestive juice (secreted by the pancreatic glands), bile (made by the liver), and the juice of the duodenum itself are all combined together here. The contents of food, particularly lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, are weakened by the action of various digestive fluids into simpler compounds that may be incorporated into the body. The absorption of the digested contents of food is the responsibility of the small intestines, which are nearly twenty feet long. The remainder travels through the large intestines (which are approximately five feet long) and is eventually expelled through the anus after absorbing water from it. The absorbed components of food are mostly kept in the liver and then transported to the tissues, muscles, and all other regions of the body via the blood.